| || |
This page last revised 08 September 2006 -- S.M.Gon III
TNC Action Sites
Maps & Figures
Lowland and montane mesic forest on Hawai'i Island are habitat for 'io, the Hawaiian hawk.
Anuntold number of native invertebrates, such as this Hawaiian happyfacespider, are nested within Hawai'is native ecosystems.
The endemic ho'awa, Pittsporum hosmeri, is restricted to Kona, and a food plant of the endangered Hawaiian corw, 'alala.
There is a wide variety of native ecosystems on the Island of Hawai'i.
Hawai‘i Island Conservation Area Profiles
| Conservation Targets: |
Ecological Systems: Nine ecologicalsystems of Hawai‘i Island are included amongthe conservationtargets of the different conservation areas, each bearing nestednatural communities and species. The overall viability ranks of thenine systems in the six conservation areas are summaried below.
Occurrences selected for the ecoregional portfolio are indicated in boldface green.Dry Cliff System has POOR viability and is not included.KOH=Kohala; MK=Mauna Kea; WML=Windward Mauna Loa; K-K=Ka'ū-Kapāpala;KON=Kona; P-P=Pohakuloa-Pu'u Wa'awa'a.
Selected stream occurrences:Hawai‘i, despite its very young geological age, bears some high qualitystreams in the Kohala and Mauna Kea conservation areas, and the fourstreams selected:
Wailoa/Waipi‘o (Kohala), Honokānenui (Kohala), Hanawī (Papaikou Quad), and Honoli‘i (Hilo District) Streams are among thelargest and highest quality streams on the island (Hawai‘i Stream Assessment 1991). Eachbears a rich complement of native macrofauna and high volume, high qualitywater in a channel with high structural heterogeneity.
Special Ecological Features:
Forest Bird Concentrations of Hawai‘i Island are among the most extensive in area, and are present in Mauna Kea, Windward Mauna Loa, Ka‘ū - Kapāpala, and Kona conservation areas.
The Hawai‘i Waterbird Concentration is defined as three core wetlands and at least six of eight supporting wetland sites on the island, identified by the USFWSWaterbird Recovery Plan (2005). These include coastal and lowlandsites largely outside of the ecological system targets.Nested Targets (Selected examples):
‘Ōhi‘a/Uluhe Lowland Wet
‘Ōhi‘a/Mixed Shrub Montane
‘Ōhi‘a Mixed Lowland Mesic
Lama/‘Ōhi‘a Lowland Mesic
Lama Lowland Dry Forest
Hawaiian Montane Bog
Mixed Fern/Shrub Wet Cliff Community
Koai‘a Lowland Dry Forest
Koa/Māmane Montane Dry Forest
Māmane/Naio Subalpine Dry Forest
Pūkiawe Subalpine Dry Shrubland
Hawaiian Alpine Aeolian Desert
There are manyconstituent native species that comprise the natural communities of the ConservationArea. Highlights include 39 rare/endangered plant species, 248 endemicflowering plant species, and an untold number of endemic invertebrate species likelynumbering in the thousands.Major Threats:Uncontrolledferal ungulates (primarily pigs, goats, mouflon); a variety ofinvasivealien plants, including Pennisetum, Miconia, Clidemia, and Psidium, militarytraining impacts and wildfire at montane and subalpine dry and mesicsettings; logging and ranching in Kona and Mauna Kea conservation areas.
|Thenative-dominated ecological systems of the conservation areas of Hawai'i (left) occupy its higherelevation central region, extending downward into areas (pink)converted by historic change into anthropogenic andalien-dominated regions. |
The portfolio of conservation areas for Hawai'i(far right) includes viable ecological systems (dark green), fourforest bird concentrations (red stars), four stream communityoccurrences (light blue courses running from Kohala and Mauna Keaconservation areas), and waterbird concentrations (detailed localitiesnot shown at this scale).
|A crosssection of a high island such as Hawai'i indicates the variety of moistureand elevation conditions present: Alpine and subalpine summit areas areflanked by wet, mesic and dry montane, lowland, and coastal/marine systems.|